Sunday, June 9, 2019

Child Care College Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Child Care College - Essay ExampleIn contemplating the kind of assistance parents should resort to for child worry, it is essential that the requirement of a safe and happy environment that fun, educational and nurturing is met. Baby sitters are often among the top choice of parents in their decisions on which kind of help they would embark for their child. though this is the case, it does not in all way conclusively suggest that it is the best practice. I would argue that child cautiousness from a licensed child care center is undeniably better than care from a baby sitter which is also fondly called as nanny.A child care center provides care for groups of children. They often provide entertainment and activities for all of the children to take part in. In child care centers, the space and equipment is designed strictly for the intended use of the rapidness (www.childcarehelp.org). Children tend to be grouped with former(a)s their own age and activities can be designed to meet t he needs of each classroom of children. Most caregivers in a center are required to allow education in child development or early childhood education, and all staffs are required to have annual in-service training in child development. ... In exchange for a bed, food and allowance they will look after the child or children season the parents go to work (www.babycenter.com). A live out nanny, on the other hand, will live in their own home and come to the house as and when arranged to look after the children. Either form of nanny would be considered an employee of the family (www.nannysource.com). The individual care offered to a child is the primary reason that many bulk select this service for their infant care needs. Parents are also able to have almost complete control over activities, feeding times and any other factor of the childs daily lives. Obviously in home care is the most expensive form of day care or any other care that is available but does offer a one on one service in exchange.There are a lot of disadvantages of babysitting though parents may think that it is the best care since there is a one to one interaction. Nanny care is unsupervised and our parents must do painstaking screening of any potential caregiver. The most glaring disadvantage is the expense, because, after all, our parents are paying someones salary, and they are likely to be working a dour day. Nanny care is the most expensive form of child care that I think our families could have, with most of us paying 18K - $40K per year for nannies (www.nannysource.com). Nannies are in high demand and there is a lot of competition in the marketplace for the qualified nanny. Lack of socialization may be an issue for an only(prenominal) child. Not all child care logistical problems are magically solved by nanny care. There may be issues on how to remunerate days when the nanny is ill or if there are weather emergencies which I

Saturday, June 8, 2019

The point in my career Essay Example for Free

The point in my career EssayI never thought of myself as being confident or even reliable. It sounds worse than it is, I actually never committed to a affair or a project that I felt I could not complete. But I was at a point in my career or even in life in general where I was ready for a major challenge. I applied for a job with a large school district in the area for an Associate Director position. This was a big step for me since I always felt my work was nothing out of the ordinary. Part of the interview process was to answer the question, why should we hire you. In my thought process I began realized the great achievements I have had in my previous jobs. I talked about my duties and responsibilities, my projects and accomplishments. I told them how I completed a 5 year game log that no one wanted to touch on my first three months of my first job. I recalled how appreciative school administrators were when I was able to alleviate them understand their school budget and fin ancial condition.I explained my participation in developing an integrated financial system for the largest school district in the State. As I answered this question and many more like it, I realized that I am a reliable person that can take on challenges and be sure to complete them. I also told them about a 2 year program I completed in School blood line Management. I am knowledgeable, innovative and dependable. My interview was beginning to be impressive. My confidence during the interview was obvious but appropriate.I ended up getting the job as Associate Director and I entered that position with great confidence. I knew I had the skills and determination to succeed in that position. I no longer doubted my dependableness because in retrospect, I have been extremely reliable exceeding all expectations. I was able to accomplish major projects in that position and serve my employers and community well.

Friday, June 7, 2019

Turn On the People in Any Organization Essay Example for Free

Turn On the People in Any Organization EssayThe pages of human accounting daubed in bloodshed on account t of World Wars I and II, war unleashed by Japan at Nanking, the Civil War of USA and galore(postnominal) otherwise small and big violent incidents ask the crying question. How to defecate this Planet Earth heaven-like? The answer is simple and direct. Eyes panoptic of understanding, heart full of love and the emotional state that refuses conflicts- these al star argon enough Most of the violence is for m unitytary gains, acquisition of territory, and to feed vanity. The materialistic civilization, the industrial and internet revolutions, apply unleashed a new war, without actually declaring it.This relentless war is fought on day to day basis in the stock exchanges. Each Nation wants to become economically tidy and prevent others from becoming powerful Today, man is being destroyed by the inner conviction of uselessness and no amount of economic growth suffer compe nsate for this loss. How long can we confront Nature to achieve better standards of living and better standards of life? Reconciliation with the eternal principles of Nature is the need of the second to achieve genuine peace and prosperity and we need to learn a lot from the Plant and Animal Kingdom.If they can live in accordance with their ingest Nature in a peaceful manner, why cant the human beings? Gung-ho is the Chinese language phrase. It is derived from gongye hezuoshe, which means industrial workers co-operative. Karl Marx essential be shifting in his grave with the mention of this word. Such co-operatives were established for the benefit of workers by Rewi Alley and his team. State who the animal characters of the guard are, and why they are important The three animal characters mentioned refer to three Native American lessons.Champions of commerce and industrial magnates deem accepted the supremacy of computer applications, and perhaps surrender come to the conclusi on that this is the only path for economic ascendancy. For such individuals this book has something special and novel. The lessons for organizational turnaround are The Spirit of the Squirrel, the lesson is one of the powers of worthwhile work. The mood of the Beaver, the lesson is accomplished through empowerment. The Gift of the Goose, the lesson is the exponential factor of motivation. Continuous application, relentless efforts is the key to success.They say, have a will to grow and grow you will enforce each creature to a management situation Any management situation, there is one permanent, irrevocable relationship. It is between one human being to another(prenominal) human being. Give respect and take respectvery simple When you use the best adjectives you can form a wonderful sentence. Similarly, happy, motivated, empowered and advance members, who work with the sense of responsibility, can bring nothing but cheer to the financial results of a company. Leadership should s core over management the end-results will be precedent-shattering.The Gift of the Goose is the factor in motivation for an employee who finds himself in a discouraging situation and feels trapped. I know an instance of a bank accountant sending the recovery notice to a dairy unit owner who had lost his both cows that died under mysterious circumstances and he was inefficient to pay the loan installments. Selling milk of the cows was his only source income. From where would the poor man repay the loan? When this incident came to the notice of the Senior coach of the Bank, he advised the accountant to give him further loan for buying four cows.He would maintain himself with the profit from the milk from two cows and with the other portion of the profit he would repay the loan amount of the bank The right decision at the right time, saved the borrower from ruin, and the Banks loan was also repaid fully. pardon what you have learned from each character Work is worship is not mere t he spiritual quote its practical utility is great. The beauty of the work through with(p) with sincerity and dedication is something special. For the best output, basic conditions need to be created for the employees to become basically sound and industrious.When there is a free working environment, when restrictions are less, and one has freedom to take decisions, the results would be encouraging. Those who work only commit mistakes. One who walks will at times stumble. Positive attitude and right frame of headway are the fundamentals to get the results. This is the sum and substance of the messages of the Squirrel, the Beaver and the Goose. Specifically, the principle involved in the example of Squirrel, is that even the small and insignificant looking beings make the difference in the world by their active presence.One needs to cultivate the habit of making the world a better place. We need to have common goals and shared ideals. The Beaver principle is, give the workers the lo ng rope, within the well-defined boundaries. Let them work in a free atmosphere allow them not feel suffocated under the pressure of repeated orders, modifications and revised orders. Teach them to control themselves. The Goose principle, is let good work be appreciated, even the temperate rebuke needs to be on an encouraging note. Trust them, and they will give better results. Console them, instead of questioning them.Congratulate them at the early opportunity. Choose one or more traits that you would like to emulate, and explain why you feel that way The Spirit of the Squirrel, the lesson is one of the powers of worthwhile work. The three core ideas of Gung Ho are simple yet profound Worthwhile work guided by goals and values putting workers in control of their production and cheering one another on. What you do is no doubt important but how you do, what you do is more important. I like this trait immensely, as it the only way to hold up out duties and responsibilities in a p eaceful manner.They say, It is better to deserve without receiving, than to receive without deserving. Participation in action is always better than renunciation of action. The modern comburant younger generation wishes to have proof for everything and will not accept anything, unless convinced about it scientifically. Well, here is the proof for the assured reward for productivity. every action, has the chemical reaction and the intensity of reaction is in proportion to the intensity of the action. Over which there is no dispute between the scientists and the spiritualists.One of the rare agreements between the two contending forces the two opposing forces the forces that do not see eye to eye with other This is the solid foundation on which one needs to base ones understanding, as one is bound to get rewards for ones loyalty and hard work. Its timing is not the domain of the human being. Right things will determine at the right time and this need not be doubted at all. Gung-Ho approach solidifies such a belief. What changes would you like to see in your own life after reading this book?One of the important guidelines that I got from this book is about interaction with the people how important it is in day to day administration in life. Doing charm things at the appropriate time, gives positive results. How disciplined and regular are the animals in doing their duty ordained to them by Nature. They never falter. They never disobey the rules. Their food habit is disciplined. They wont harm anyone without reason. Their traits are decided and certain. I need to learn much by observing the nature of the animals.I need to perform my duty to the best of my ability and judgment, not because someone is telling me, not because my boss is ordering, but because, but only because, to live by hard work is the correct way of life. Another important change in my life is that I begin to love animals and birds, take interest to paper their nature, read books on them, an d wonder what an important role Nature has provided for them in the beautification and maintenance of flora and fauna around us. Talk about what you liked or did not like about the book. The book is very helpful in creating a work and management culture of excellence.It provides elucidation of notable points to the leaders to change magnitude their knowledge, skills and motivation. It tells that sharing of information is the road to prosperity. It assists in front-line decision making. Productivity is the top concern in any commercial or industrial establishment. And you have to create conditions for its willing acceptance of that expected productivity in the workplace. The employees can build an organization just as sometimes it is claimed that the employees can break it. Every employer wishes to have the builder.An inspired employee is an asset to any organization in the ultra-competitive business world of the modern day. The traditional concept that the customer is king is assum ing new dimensions. How to unafraid unflinching loyalty for products and how to retain the employees in top gear, as for productivity and the latent creative joy Gung Ho has solid answers for such situations. This not the book to read and keep aside It is the reference book, and as one faces different situations in life, the practical examples given will be beneficial to find an appropriate solution.The authors have developed a pleasant way of telling about the leadership qualities and management principles through the example of animals and birds. The principles elucidated in this book can be applied for small as well as big businesses. The book concretely tells how a business establishment on the verge of failure was reborn into a success empire.References Blanchard, Ken Book Gung Ho Turn On the People in Any Organization. Hardcover 256 pages Publisher William Morrow 1 edition (October 8, 1997) spoken communication English ISBN-10 068815428X ISBN-13 978-0688154288

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Five Traits Essay Example for Free

Five Traits Essay1.Define and discuss the importance of the following traits associated with leaders intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity, and sociability. Is this mention all inclusive? a.Intelligence Having a strong verbal ability, perceptual ability, and reasoning abilities Leaders intellectual abilities, however, should not differ too much from their subordinates Intelligence is in like manner defined as a trait that significantly contributes to a leaders acquisition of complex problem-solving skills and social judgement skills Intelligent leaders induct the ability to consider every situation individually and make an assessment as to what is the best solution. b.Self-Confidence The ability to be certain about ones competencies and skills is self-confidence Includes both self-esteem and self-assurance Self-confidence is an essential trait for any leader because without self-confidence it may become harder for followers to fully imprecate their leaderc. Determination Determination is the desire to get a job done and includes characteristics such as initiative, persistence, dominance, and drive these people are proactive and have the diligence to face obstacles this trait is needed in order for leaders and followers to overcome goals. d.Integrity Integrity is the quality of honesty and trustworthiness these people are those who stand by to a strong set of principles and take responsibility for their actions Leaders need integrity in order to inspire confidence in others since they are believe to do what they say they are going to do. e.Sociability A leaders inclination to seek out pleasant social relationships people who possess sociability are able to create strong relationships with their fellow followers. f.The five traits described above are all traits in which strong leaders possess. While the contention is certainly not all-inclusive, these five seem to be essential in order to produce a strong and successful leader.

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

Mega Events And The Legacy It Leaves Behind Tourism Essay

Mega Events And The bequest It Leaves Behind Tourism Essay metropolis computer programmeners whateverwhat the terra firma get an luck for rapid urban culture and vicissitude at a large scale through mega- military issue planning. The Barcelona Olympics of 1991 saw a paramount substitution in mega-event planning, where city planners foc apply on the legacy that the event leaves behind and its impact on the city. The sustainable urban development of the city of Barcelona catapulted it to one of the enlighten cities of Europe in a matter of year.Following the success of the Barcelona Games, mega-event organizations much(prenominal) as the IOC, Commonwealth Federation, FIFA etc. began focusing on the legacy plan of offer cities for determining winning invokes for such mega-events. An understanding of the effects of various legacy plans and its implementation in bid-winning cities is essential in sortingulating guild lines for evaluating the success of the legacy plans.T he City of Delhi derived much of its legacy plan from previous bid winners and developed its urban change plan for the city. The intention of this dissertation is to investigate the legacy plan for urban regeneration intended for the city of Delhi through the Commonwealth Games as well as the legacy that the event left behind. A comparison back end in that respectfore, be made to determine the extent to which the urban regeneration plan was implemented and how successful it was.The Macmillan Dictionary definesLegacysomethingsuchasatraditionorproblemthatexistsasaresultofsomethingthathappenedinthepast.somethingthatsomeonehasachievedthatcontinuestoexistsaftertheystop workingordie.The mega-event is by its nature large scale, organized by the social elite in the horde nation or city and projects secular values and principles through the creation of an official version of the city or nations history and contemporary identity. Performance mega-events are typified in the 20th century b y the Olympics and represent a populist cultural expression of the achievements of the host city or nation (Roche, 2000). Reinvention of a Mega-event as catalyst of urban development became prominent towards the late 1970s. Reasons for this were the growing awareness of the pervasiveness of deindustrialization led city planners to take feat to stimulate newborn credits of employment and in like manner that urban regeneration by traditional production based approaches became implausible. This lead to alternate strategies that relied on service industries and social occasion to supply growth.(R.Gold, M. Gold, 2007)Mega-events are used by city planners to fast forward the planning and execution process by overcoming problems of urbanism. The recent host cities of mega-events withstand used it to contain the social disruption arising from rapid urbanization and sparing expansion. Host cities use these events to achieve specific local and national goals. The 1992 Barcelona Olym pic Games represented an opportunity to redevelop the city using a mix of public and private sector funding that balanced the commercial and social aims. The Fantasy City mystify (aggressive commercialism and tourist orientation) of the Los Angeles Games were modified and the Barcelona approach emerged as an alternative to obtaining a stick out-Games regeneration legacy. Since 1992, Legacy has assumed a considerable signifi shadowce to the internationalist Olympic Committee (IOC) as its evaluation process has incorporated environmental and other social dimensions and is now firmly focused upon non-sport related outcomes as a source of legitimation for hosting the Games. The Barcelona inspired modification of the commercial approach to hosting the Games was replicated by London with the 2012 bid creating a combination of public and private funding and partnerships to deliver the event and an ambitious social, cultural and economic legacy. (Poynter, 2009). The Government of In dia also gave a comprehensive legacy plan to the Commonwealth Federation in order to win the bid of the 2010 Commonwealth Games to Delhi, India over Hamilton, Canada. The study of previous Mega-events particularly the Olympics of Barcelona 1992, battle of capital of Georgia 1996, Sydney 2000 and capital of Greece 2004, their legacy plan and implementation, are key to understanding and analyzing the legacy plan for Delhi post the Commonwealth Games of 2010.The key findings of the Greater London Authority on previous editions of the Olympic Games of Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Sydney 2000 and Athens 2004 for assessing the Legacy of the London Olympics of 2012, are as follows sparingLegacy MomentumIn the economic sphere Legacy Momentum refers to the capacity of the city and regional economy to continue an upward growth cut following the immediate post-Games downturn in economic activity. The capacity to achieve momentum relates to several factors.The Games must complement an alread y existing regeneration plan that involves new phases beyond the Olympic event.The knowledge-base derived from the preparation and staging of the event is not dispersed when the Games end but is utilized to promote further innovation with the city and region.3. The negative consequences and omissions from the Olympic-relatedregeneration phase are totressed in subsequent urban development projects. Barcelona (1992) is the best example of a host city achieving LegacyMomentum.The Mega Event and the City EconomyThe impact of the Games on a city economy is both tangible and intangible. The intangible re-branding of a city may pay off subsequent tangible effects, specially through inward investment and the enhancement of entrepreneurial confidence and expertise (Barcelona 1992). The Games provides a significant catalyst for renewal accelerating the climax of home projects (Barcelona 1992, Atlanta 1996, Athens 2004 and more(prenominal) modestly Sydney 2000) but the host city populati on emerges with a balance sheet of positives and negatives from a process of regeneration that happens to it rather than is shaped by it.Social, Cultural and LifestyleOlympic Philosophy RegenerationThe IOC commits to ensure that the host cities and their residents are left with the close to positive legacy of venues, infrastructure, expertise and experienceUrban RenewalAll Cities pursue hard legacy gains infrastructure, the reorientation of city spaces,improved amenity, new types of land use and economic activity. Barcelona is theacknowledged success story here.Planned-in legacy offsets white elephant syndrome in some cases The post-Games use of infrastructure is an important guide to the success of the Games, and in all cases legacy ask to be built into initial conception, design and delivery of Olympic facilities ( expressions, but also IT, governance, city brand management, and post Games primary(prenominal)tenance contracts). Barcelona Olympic village, Atlanta business tourism , Sydney and Australian tourism and Athens transport systems provide indicative evidence.The Green LegacyThe first Green Games, and its Environmental Audit Legacy- Sydney was the first Games to be audited passim by Greenpeace, who issued a detailed and fairly positive report. Any future day Games environmental impact will be judged according to the Sydney benchmark, and therefore cooperation with NGOs (in cultivation sharing, planning and execution as well as in establishing the principles for grammatical construction, raw materials procurement, etc) is vital.Sustainability and poverty reductionEnvironmental sensitivity and sustainable development together form the thirdpillar of Olympism, as is fully explained in the Olympic Agenda 21 document of1999. Sustainable development federal agency engaging with the whole worlds needs forclean air and water, and creating opportunities for personal and social developmentworldwide.Hard infrastructure and urban renewal Housing, Olympic Vi llage development (Cashman 2006) Transport connectivity and enhancement greener, cleanser and more efficient (Cashman 2006 Essex and Chalkey 1998) Economic success (Preuss 2004 Cashman 2006) Telecommunications infrastructure Sporting facilities permitting increased sports and other community activities/participation. The outward fabric of the city cleaning and greening Hotel and other tourist and leisure venues including night timeEconomyDefinition of a Good LegacyWhile each of the past cities can be seen to have pursued many of these aims,typically each city can be shown to have emphasized in particular instances anarrower range of ambitions. It is the case that typically cities aim to integrate Olympic-based renewal alongside wider urban development agendas.( Preuss 2004).Notable differences in cities starting pointsAdapted from McKay and Plumb (2001)The Barcelona Games (1992) are often cited as a model for London. These Games represented the regeneration of an entire city of t hree million people, rather than a narrower geographical area within a larger city. It is also worth noting that the Barcelona Games were the most expensive of the recent Olympiads, as a consequence of the large-scale regeneration program.The Atlanta Games (1996) were not particularly focused on regeneration. consumption was confined largely to sporting facilities (no Olympic Village was built, for instance), and the private funding of the Games left a very limited legacy.The Sydney Games (2000) were less focused on regeneration than the London Olympics are the Homebush area was regenerated by the Games, but the residential areas were in fact already wealthier than Sydney overall. Athens Some major regeneration projects (2004) included the Athens metro and road systems. Revivification of Athens as a world class tourist city and assertion of relationships with Europe were key aims.Other LegaciesTypically, apart from sporting venues, there are four areas of development Transportat ion road, rail, tram, air and various interconnections, as well as policy and planning on parking, pedestrianisation and modal auxiliary verb shift. Telecommunications infrastructure primarily to service the worlds media,but in the future perhaps also developing Olympic area for WiFi and/or otherconnectivity for visitors Housing, particularly the Olympic village urban realm and culturalinfrastructure night time economy, Cultural activities as well as ecologicaland parkland projects. at that place is typically some initial disruption locally, and related concerns about the longand short term impact of such development on various costs, especially on theinflationary impact on rents and prices, not only in the short term period of theGames, when congested transport systems and the prospect of inflated eateryprices can jar with local communities, but in the medium and longer term, whereinfrastructure investment, especially improved transport links (as well asreputational benefits for the city) can drive up property and rental prices either citywide or, as is more significant, in certain privileged areas.The Games are welcomed as a stimulus to and accelerator of such investment anddevelopmental change in the city, however transformations leading to gentrificationand rear price/rental inflation can rapidly produce divisions. As with any kind ofregeneration project, the Games can contribute to an amplification of socioeconomicdifferences, producing new spatial distributions of wealth and well-being and gentrification effects which sometimes polarise local populations in regenerating areas. For instance, Barcelona is understood to be amongst the most successful cities in terms of legacy. As part of its successful development of its public figure and infrastructure towards becoming a key European hub and a renewed centre for global tourism and culture, the city has also seen (as a consequence) massive house price and rental inflation (131% between 1987-1992), an d the emergence of a large population of wealthy international resident/visitors and property investors benefiting from long term infrastructure investments more directly than some local populations, whose access to housing and jobs may not have significantly improved.Legacy of Sports InfrastructureIt is achievable to identify a range of subsequent legacy uses for sports infrastructure.The afterlife of the venue is an inaccurate designation, since the short, 16 dayOlympic phase (not including the test and training events that may proceed theGames proper) part determining many of the features and fabric of the structure,ideally ought not, exclusively and definitively pre- or pro- scribe subsequent usage.Preuss (2004) suggests four main follow up uses of Olympic facilities, to which wemight add a further use, drawing on Cashmans (2006) account of the importanceof memory and retrospection in informing the subsequent symbolic and softlegacies of the GamesFollow up usage of Olympic Inf rastructure (Table below)Source adapted from Preuss, 2004 and Cashman 2005The RequirementsThere is no direct correlation between such increases and the wide variations in the cost of lay Games on, however such variance is a function of decisions about how and which sporting and other infrastructure will and must be developed, revitalized or replaced in the particular host city.What the Cities Built Outlining New and Existing FacilitiesClearly hard legacy, as well as costs, are linked to the proportion of new construction take in chargen for the Games. This work, extensive as it is, represents less investmentthan the large capital projects such as roads, rail links and land reclamation leadingto fundamental legacy gains (as well as massive cost including cost overruns).However, it is the specifically Olympic buildings and in particular large stadiums thatinvite most speculation about future usage.The degree of new infrastructure development undertaken by different cites varies(Pre uss 2004 Baim 2007 Essex and Chalkey 2003). In part this is a matter ofculture, where specific sports and facilities (such as baseball in the UK) are notroutinely apart of the host nations sporting habits. Existing development andintended investment planning largely shape this aspect of hard legacy. ordinary Facilities Barcelona, Atlanta, Sydney and Athens (Table below)Source Adapted from Preuss (2004)As Carbonnell (2005) suggests, drawing primarily on the Barcelona experience,For any city, hosting the Olympic Games is both an honour and a challenge.Much of the infrastructure necessary is temporary in nature it only serves apurpose for the duration of the Games themselves. Barcelona took a veryclear-cut approach on this issue the aim was to undertake ambitiousprojects which would benefit the city as a whole, convinced that what wasgood for the citys residents would also be good for the Olympic family(Carbonell 2005).Accommodating the required numbers of visitors to the host city, and ensuring a game quality and secure experience for all, over 16 days, is no small task. However,the scale of host cities Olympic projects, especially when thinking in terms oflegacy, must also, and primarily, include consideration of the scale, extent andquality (in terms of delivery and planning for subsequent use) of the wholerefurbished fabric of the host city, in and around the main Olympic sites, but alsobeyond, up and down transport routes and down and through hi-tech telecom andIT infrastructure. apocalyptical changes in get to rehearse Associated with Olympic Construction (Table below)Source Adapted from Preuss 2004BarcelonaThe Olympics were an accelerant to and focus for a number of projects, some longplanned, others specific to circumstances pre-1992. The Games emerged withintransformations involving extensive urban development of old fish markets, armybarracks, a womens prison and polluted water bowel movement areas3. The 1936-built stadium in Montjuc Park was refurb ished and many newvenues were built. The Olympic Village necessitated a new placement of two rail lines thatseparated downtown Barcelona from the coastline formerly an industrialarea. The industrial section was replaced with beaches, which after the redirectionof the metro line re-connected the city to the sea. The sewage system was also modernised Four museums and a botanical garden were renovated in preparation of theGames. In 2004 Barcelona was the number one tourist destination in Europe.Observers of host cities in the aftermath of the Olympiad are well used to noting the white elephants, the most common characterisation of infrastructure One kilometre of beaches in front of the Olympic Village, with a series of piers protecting the sand from the dominant stream that flows in East-West direction. The Olympic harbour with a capacity for 700 boats in the water and three hundred ashore, with 75% of public space (bars, restaurants, commercial space etc). Seaport promenade. 30 met ers wide pedestrian seafront promenade with cafes, restaurant and other facilities. Two towers 100 metres high for hotels and offices and other minor buildings. Highway. Part of the city system of ring roads, with high traffic intensity (120,000 vehicles a day). Urban nucleus. The basic idea was to link the new residential area with thetraditional morphology of the city. Some 2,000 housing units were built to host 15,000 athletes and 17,000 inhabitants. There was finally an integrated system of parks both for the use of the communities living around and in the nearby neighbourhood. developments which fail, in the medium or long term to find suitable subsequent usage.The study of Olympic Villages throughout this century is the study of thehistory of ideas about how to develop the city, how to plan it and how tomanage it (Munoz 1998).It is probably unwise to generalise from either extreme however, Barcelona is aninstructive instance of a largely progressive and positively received red evelopmentand of imaginative and sustained legacy momentum in the post Games periods.As noted above in term of infrastructure, the Games certainly offer someimprovements. Truno (1995) tracked both access and facilities in Barcelona preandpost- Games. If the number of installations available in Barcelona in 1982 is compared with those available after 1992, it can be seen that the Olympic and non-Olympic investment effort resulted in an increase of 75.8% as far as installations were concerned, and of 126.4% in the case of sports venues. Altogether, a total climb up area of nearly 300,000 square metres was involved (Truno 1995)The figures for use of new sports centres created after the Games in all theinstallations which accept subscribers or members, there has been anincrease of 46,000 new users. (Truno, 1995)P.T.OIndicative positive legacy developments from Olympic village development Barcelona(Table below)AtlantaEssex and Chalkey (1998) provide a useful summary of the Atlanta infr astructure. The centrepiece of the Games was the Olympic Stadium (capacity of85,000) constructed especially for the event with private finance. afterward theGames, it was converted to a 48,000 seat baseball park for use by theAtlanta Braves baseball team. Other new facilities, such as the Aquatic Center, basketball gym, hockeystadium and equestrian venue, were given to educational establishments orlocal authorities. The main Olympic Village (133 ha) was located on thecampus of Georgia Technical College. The other main infrastructural legacy to the city was the Centennial OlympicPark in central Atlanta, which was intended to be a conference place forvisitors during the Games and later to enhance the quality of life for localresidents.The Atlanta legacy is largely understood to have been committed to business and commercial aims building the reputation of the city.Nevertheless as McKay and Plumb (2001) observe,Atlanta largely used existing facilities to house athletes and as such d id notexperience the mass residential construction around its Olympic precinct.The Olympics did, however, have a considerable influence on the location ofdemand by helping to create a more attractive inner city residentialenvironment through improvements to transport facilities, retail amenitiesand public areas, such as parks and pedestrian walkways. The Atlantaoffice market has continued to grow strongly since 1996, with more than520,000 m.2 of office space absorbed across the metro area in 1998.INDICATIVE baptismal font STUDY Negative Impacts Atlanta adapted fromNewman (1999) Economically deprived African-American areas of Atlanta were affectedmost by the preparations for the Games. Residents were relocated from at least vi public housing projects For these individuals the preparations for the Olympics were disruptivecosting many the use value of their homes and neighbourhoods. CODAs neighbourhood revitalisation plans failed, and only those areasclosest to Olympic venues recei ved substantial hold for revitalisation.Newman makes a useful point about tendencies relevant in particular to megaevent driven regeneration. He suggests that events such as the Olympics are part of a process of reshaping land use in the city to make room for urban spectacle and display at the expense of the routine aspects of daily life for urban residents. In public housing projects and in low-income neighbourhoods, many families were moved to make way for the spectacle.Newman concludes thatThe legacy of newly constructed sports venues and the enhanced image ofAtlanta as a world city must be tempered by the continuation of a pattern ofmoving low-income residents to make way for growth.The study suggests thatOnly the most dedicated efforts by business leaders and city government towork with low-income citizens after the Games will change the legacy ofdistrust the Olympics have helped to perpetuate.AthensThe main features of the Athens projects included an attempt at revitalising m ajortracts of the city precinct. Remediation of almost 300 ha. of disused wasteland/quarries, and 250 ha.of polluted rubbish dumps, as well as 600 ha. of former army camps deindustrialization and de-militarisation of land use Developing park, recreation and environmental education areas covering250 ha. of urban space (landscaping of 60 ironical and seasonal river beds intolandscaped parks) The unification and enhancement of major tourist/archaeological sites Enhancement of residential districts in the centre and outskirts of the city Transport Athens International Airport Regeneration Athens ring road and designed to take traffic from notoriously congested city Athens Metro, with an intention towards encouraging legacy modal shift necessary in a city well known for congestion problemsSydneyThe main features of the Sydney Olympic regeneration were New sports facilities (inc. Olympic Stadium), Telecommunications enhancements, Land remediation in Homebush Bay, Olympic Village built a s new suburb (Newington) with housing the worldslargest solar powered settlement, Green redevelopment international benchmarking on waste reduction,water re-use, use of recyclable materials, Further sports, retail, commercial and transport facilities widening offootpaths and new street furniture, aimed at smartening up central Sydney Transport the major policy and planning aims of the Sydney Games were toensure public access. This would have also contributed to the greencredentials of the Games. This was achieved practically by Public transport being the only means by which spectators coulddirectly access events at major Olympic sites Satellite car parking venues established in park and ride typeschemes. (see Cashman 2005 200-1) In addition the Games served as catalysts for catalyst for expansion ofSydney airport including new rail link and Eastern Distributor road linking theairport to the CBDCashman, noting in particular that there was a post-Games slump in enthusiasm for all thi ngs Olympic. He identifies a range of factors that should continue to be tracked, suggesting that (as with Athens) the legacy needs to mature before some key assessments can be made.These include Media tracking and analysis of cultural issues city branding, nationalreputation, attitudes to multicultural issues within Australia, attitudes todisability and sport Business and economic outcomes Impacts on Sport elite performance and everyday participation Ecological issuesThe Olympic Village, SydneyThe aim in building the Village was to provide the best possible housing and residential facilities for all athletesand team officials to apply the highest possible environmental standards to provide a new suburb for post-Games useThe site had previously been an abattoir.After the Games The Village was made into a residential area, a suburb of Newington Medium density housing 850 three- and four-bedroom architect designed houses and 350 two- tothree-bedroom apartments in 94 hectares.Cashman offers some run of participation. These figures are insome sense more clear, however they do not reveal too much detail about sportsparticipation, rather heavy(a) emphasis to generalised Post Games legacy uses civic amenity as much as sporting venue nonetheless valuable social assets.Attendances at the Aquatic Centre in recent years in Sydney (Table below)Source Cashman (2006)Overall AssessmentSource Greater London Authority ( 2007)

Tuesday, June 4, 2019

Effect of Personality on Career Choice

Effect of Personality on C atomic number 18er ChoiceWhich personality factors would be most likely to inform an ambitious survival of the fittest of c arer? talk of in reference to concepts drawn from at least two theories of personality.Personality is a set of psychological processes which emerges from our brain, which defined as ongoing natures that craft the lineament patterns of interaction with individuals environment (Goldberg, 1993 Olver and Mooradian, 2003 Parks and Guay, 2009). The relationship among personality and career planning has been researched for decades suggesting that there is a signifi ejectt relationship between personality factors and career choices, however, practically, wrong career choice are made due to the ignorance of specific personality type of the individuals (Roberts and Robins, 2000 Onoyase and Onoyase, 2009 Hirschi et al., 2010 Gunkel, Schlaegel, Langella, Peluchette, 2010 Hussain et. al , 2012). Therefore, the objective of this article is to cover compatibilities among career choice decisions and the personality type of the incumbents opting for job because people make decisions of their career choices based on their personality types (Onoyase and Onoyase, 2009 Hussain et al., 2012).The first theory that is discussed is on Carl G Jungs belief personality. His theory led to a self-reported psychological predilection framework known as The Myers Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) which is developed by Kathryn Briggs and Isabel Myers Briggs. The junto of the descriptions of each of the four preferences of the MBTI make up 16 possible personality factors (Blackford, 2010), which indicates the strength of the preference for each dimension (Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay, 2013).Fretwell, Lewis, and Hannay (2013) explained that Extraversion and Introversion index resile where individual prefer to think their attention, the extroverts receive their sources of energy from the outside world of people, the interactions with people and thi ngs are their main focus, and urged to be involved in things. They work cursorily and dislike complicated procedures, but they can be impatient at long slow jobs. They prefer oral conference and can communicate freely with separates that is why they tend to fall towards careers where there are interactions with others. Where else Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay (2013) explained that for introverts energy comes from the inner world of understand including, concepts, thoughts and ideas. Introvert Individuals tend to be much into facts and more than grand which explain and underlie what goes on in the world. They tend to gravitate towards careers where ideas need to understood and organised. Introverts are more contemplative, like quiet concentration, are careful with dilate and enjoy working on one project for a long time. They are content to work alone and prefer to utilize written communication (Filbeck et al., 2005 McPherson, 1999 Myers McCaulley, 1989 Opt Loffredo, 2003 Tan Tio ng, 1999 Varvel et al., 2004 Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay, 2013).The Sensing and Intuition Index reflects how individual receives information around him and dig the world (Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay, 2013). Sensing Individual choose concrete dilate of a situation using their five senses to discern facts or events (Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay, 2013). Sensing types (Blackford, 2010). Individual with intuitive focus on looking at the overall experience as a whole, relying on a sixth sense or personal hunches or insight rather than on the five senses. They enjoy novelty, vary and the unusual. Sensing types tend to be more realistic, practical and tend to be attracted to work where the products can be seen and measured while intuitive types focus on the future and the possibilities that it holds and more attracted to work which requires the big picture, a future orientation, such as strategic planning. (Filbeck et al., 2005 Fox-Hines Bowersock, 1995 McPherson, 1999 Myers McCaulley, 1989 Opt Loffredo, 2003 Tan Tiong, 1999 Varvel et al., 2004 Blackford, 2010 Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay, 2013.The Thinking and Feeling index are basic mental processes that reflects the partialities of individuals decision making, info processing, and evaluation of perceptions. Logic, facts, and fairness are preference of thought process individuals. They Objective driven and the application of principles to a decision. They are frequently uncomfortable dealing with the feelings of others. Thinking individuals are more drawn towards careers which require logical analysis such as science, engineering and finance. Those with a feeling preference use personal or kindly values when making decisions. Their decisions are more subjective in nature, and they consider the impact that their decisions depart gestate on others. They enjoy pleasing others and are more likely to offer appreciation and sympathy. Feeling types individual are drawn to careers where communicating, teaching and helping ar e blue-chip tools. (Filbeck et al., 2005 Fox-Hines Bowersock, 1995 McPherson, 1999 Myers McCaulley, 1989 Opt Loffredo, 2003 Tan Tiong, 1999 Varvel et al., 2004 Blackford, 2010 Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay, 2013).Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay (2013) explained that The Judging and Perceiving index looks at how individuals preference in organizing and orienting themselves to the external world. Individuals who uses a judging mental processes to focus on leading an organized and orderly life. They are punctual, orderly, seek closure, and prefer control over their lives through detailed planning and collecting enough data to make a decision. They are action-oriented, decisive, and may see things as black and white, which can manifest itself as a closed-minded bearing. Those with a perceiving mental process, they are more spontaneous and open to naked as a jaybird ideas. They are more flexible and relaxed they go with the flow, and resent time constraints because they keep their options ope n for new developments, deferring decisions in field something new and interesting turns up. They see more greys and tend to be more open-minded. These individuals prefer to adapt to situations rather than control them (Filbeck et al., 2005 Fox-Hines Bowersock, 1995 McPherson, 1999 Myers McCaulley, 1989 Varvel et al., 2004 Blackford, 2010 Fretwell, Lewis, Hannay, 2013).After reviewing each personality factors in the Myers Briggs Type Inventory, Davies (2008) concluded that itis a personality preference rather than a trait instrument. There are no right or wrong answers or best or worse personality types to be in making a career choice. All the sixteen possible personality types are erect and have the potential for development. Blackford (2010) acknowleged that the MBTI is not about pigeon-holing people and forcing them into one box, rather to raise awareness of ones own strengths and areas for development.However, Different theory have different explanation too, like the Five- Dimension Personality mildew also known as the Big Five Model in personality research (Goldberg, 1992 Sucier and Goldberg, 1998 Hussain et al., 2012). The Model consist of five personality trait, first,nakednessess to experience which is the inclination to be imaginative, independent, and interested in variety (Hussain et al., 2012). Conscientiousness is the affinity to be prepared, chary, and disciplined. Third, Extraversion which is the propensity to be gregarious, fun-loving, and warm (Hussain et al., 2012). Fourth, the tendency to be sympathetic, trusting, and supportive is termed as Agreeableness (Hussain et al., 2012). Lastly, the tendency to be anxious, emotionally unstable and self-blaming known as neuroticism (Goldberg, 1993 Hussain et al., 2012).According to Hussain et. al, (2012), he actually associated a few of the career choices with the Five Factor Models, as he made a few claims based on the career choice such as managers and executives, where the job scope requires individual to manage or execute things perfectly demands strong social interaction ability in individuals and it demands attitude bring in to accept changes in external environment (Hussain et al., 2012). First he claimed that, individuals who is either ranked last on conscientiousness and agreeableness will do better in such career because as they have to manage the things on right time, be well predicted in an investigative style (Judge et al., 1999 Hussain et al., 2012) and ready to perform their operations for smooth run of their organization (Hussain et al., 2012). Second, low in neuroticism level because managers and leaders have to deal with decision makin, money and other resource pressures which tend to make them fright, traumatic and emotionally unstablized. Therefore, there is a need to be emotionally strong and have capability to cope up with certain pressures in a well mannered and realistic way (Judge et al., 1999 Hussain et al., 2012) way. Lastly, ranked average on openess to experience and extraversion will too, do better in such careers, because in order to allow negotiations to be successful, they need to at least have moderate capability of arguing and clarifying their sharpen of view easily and conventionally (Barrick and Mount, 1991 Hussain et al., 2012).On the aspect of career choice like Entrepreneurship, Individuals with high ranking on openness to experience and conscientiousness bring broad initiative and risky moves (Howard and Howard, 1995 Hussain et al., 2012). to start new projects and to expand their melodic linees in more dynamic world (Zhao and Seibert, 2006 Hussain et al., 2012). More the experience and interactions they have, more they will perceive the pits and falls in operationalisation of their new schemes and plans (Ackerman and Beier, 2003 Hussain et al., 2012). Moreover, high openness to experience of someone helps him out in learning and adapting new changes in their surroundings (Zhao and Seibert, 2006 Hussain et. al, 2012). In this way, they will more likely be effective in coping up hindrances and difficulties faced by them (Aldridge, 1997 Hussain et. al, 2012). Entrepreneurs have to deal with risk and returns always, so, they must be really conscious and careful in their investments (Barrick and Mount, 1991 Hussain et. al, 2012) in order to achieve the optimal results and to maximize their returns. They need to be compact and managed in their acts for the smooth run of their business (Zhao and Seibert, 2006 Hussain et. al, 2012). Therefore, a high rank on the conscientiousness personality trait helps them to be very careful and best planners (Aldridge, 1997 Hussain et. al, 2012). or high on neuroticism perso nality trait will perform better in career choice in entrepreneurs.Individual who decide on non-profit oriented and social professions there is a keen need to feel for others and have tendency to help out others sacrificing own rest, peace and some time resources (Barrick and Moun t, 1991 Hussain et. al, 2012). Secondly, there must also be a propensity to trust others and to interact with others. Lastly, emotions are need of these professions but they should also be at least strong enough not to be depressed enough that can derail their will power and dominance to exhibit their internal strengths (Cattell and Mead, 2008 Hussain et. al, 2012). Therefore, individual with high agreeableness and extraversion personality traits or average on neuroticism scale will excel more likely in non-profit or social making and helping profession (Hussain et. al, 2012). popular Sector professionals demand self-discipline, self-control, management and conscientiousness in each step in order to succeed. Punctuality and practicality are the key symbols of public empyrean organizations. plurality with sound emotional capabilities are more likely to be accomplishing their given assignments rather than who fail in stressful and time bound environment (Cattell and Mead, 2008). ba tch who rank high on conscientiousness or low on neuroticism are more likely to excel in public sector careers in their life.Scientists and researchers or other practitioner shave to cope up with different complex nature of problems and obstacles that need more than an ordinary look. For that, they need to be very experienced, sensitive, open to learn and perceive new things and to deduce newness from old rigid thoughts (Cattell and Mead, 2008). The more a person is exposed to an environment, the more he or she will have the capability and strength to cover all aspects of single problem. Therefore, he or she will be more likely to introduce new ways of solving a single problem. (Ackerman and Beier, 2003, Capretz, 2003). Individual ranking high on openessness or low on extraversion to experience are more likely to be successful in research, science and engineering cadres.In conclusion, different personality factors such as the traits from Five Factor Model can indicate a striving mot ivation to attain ambitious career choice. Ambitious career such as entrepreneurship, managerial or executive positions and social or non-profit organization professions, has been demonstrated to have relate to personality factors such as Conscientiousness, Openness to experiences, Agreeableness and Extraversion. A high level of conscientiousness and openness to experiences seems to relate to pursing of entrepreneurship and managerial positions. On the other hand, a high level of agreeableness and extraversion seems to relate to pursuing a career of social or non-profit professions field.In addition, individuals who are high in neuroticism are less likely to pursue ambitious choice of career as they are ofttimes too overwhelmed by their emotions, which impact their ability in making major choices and handle pressure which is unavoidable in an ambitious career. Furthermore, a moderately high in psychoticism may be acceptable as it could aid in pursing ambitious career such as scienti st, as it requires highly creative thinking style to achieve impactful discovery, but further research in this area still needs to be examine in order to obtain more credibility. Overall, all of the traits in Five Factor Model (Except neuroticism) and Psychoticism are likely to inform an ambitious career choice.

Monday, June 3, 2019

Potential Of Renewable Energy Sources In Pakistan Environmental Sciences Essay

Potential Of Renewable elan vital mentions In Pakistan environmental Sciences Essay heftiness is an essential ingredient of socio stinting development and growth. Pakistan, despite of enormous voltage of indigenous animation resources, is dependent on external resources for meeting their skill demand. Moreover, Pakistan is among those exploitation countries with low animation consumption. Only 55% and 20% Pakistans universe has access to electricity and lifelike gas respectively. About 68% Population is living in campestral argonas and just active of them have no access to electricity. At present, the people ar veneering severe electricity tear shedding problems due to shortf tot all toldy of office supply. The country is facing huge economic losses due to the dynamism crises from the previous two years. Oil (30%) and gas (48.5%) are the major sort of the current might supply. The current inunct reservoirs of the country are very low, which fulfill 15% of the oil colour demand while remaining 85% oil is imported from outside homo. The indigenous retrievable reservoirs of oil and gas will exhaust in 13 and 21 years respectively. Pakistan has wide spectrum of broad(prenominal) potential renewable zip sources, conventional and as well non-conventional, which have non been adequately explored, exploited and developed. The development of the renewable muscularity sources dismiss play an grand role to achieve stable susceptibility supply. This paper discussed potential of different renewable energy resources, which are technically viable in Pakistan. The country passel be benefited by harnessing these options of energy extension as substitute energy in theatre of operationss where sources exist and consequently contributing in poverty alleviation and cleanable environment in PakistanKey Words Pakistan, renewable energy, hydropower, wind energy, solar energy, biogas, ge othermal, emergyINTRODUCTIONEnergy is an essential ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. Without sufficient energy in useable and at affordable prices, there is a little prospects of developments of improving the economy of a country and the living conditions of people.It is well known occurrence that technological and industrial advancement is heavily dependent on the readily available energy especially in the form of fogy fuel. The larger affinity of the today energy supplies is still made of fossil fuels. The world is running on 60 % non renewable (Odum and Odum, 2001). It is estimated that global energy demand will be increase by two thirds in 2001-2030 (IEA, 2002a). The reservoirs of fossil fuel are not unlimited and at the present rate of consumption they will not last very long. The world community today uses up in bingle minute what it took the earth a millennium to create. The oil reservoirs are change magnitude and it is predicted that fossil fuels advise only meet the worlds energy demand just for tri o decennarys more (IEA, 2002a). Moreover, it has been conclusively proved that climate change, which has been importing in global warming, is generally ca utilise by greenhouse gas emissions from energy generating systems based on fossil fuels. Yet another aspect that has come into sharp focus is that the developing countries can ill afford to depend excessively upon petroleum imports marked by volatile price fluctuationsSince the inception of Pakistan, the primary power supplies from the conventional energy sources were (and are still today) not enough to meet the countrys energy demand. Pakistan, despite the enormous potential of its indigenous energy, remains energy deficient and has to rely heavily on the imports of the petroleum products to satisfy its present day need. Efforts have been made to exploit the existing conventional energy resources to build a strong indigenous geographic expedition and production base. In spite of all these efforts, Pakistan is not able to fu lly exploit its indigenous energy resources due to signifier of reasons. Although, the thermal power generating potentiality has change magnitude rapidly during the last few years due to foreign investment, but at same time, it has caused increased air pollution and CHG emission with the result of degradation of health and ecosystem (Ziagham Nayyer, 2005).After the 1970s oil crises, the issues of security of energy supplies and sustainable use of energy sources have become very important policy issues. From then, there has been an increasing interest all over the world for alternate(a) of conventional energy sources to ensure eco friendly sustainable development on the one hand and energy security on the other. This paper describe the potential of renewable energy sources in PakistanWHY renewable ENERGY?After the oil crises of the 1970s, all the developed and non oil producing countries were faced with immense oil supply problems. There developed a wide spread economic reces sion all over the world due to the high oil prices. Moreover, with in rising green movement, the environmental problem became dominant in policy agendaThe fossil fuel still continues to dominate the world energy supply. The fossil fuel consumption is more than the earth contentedness to vex it. As a result, oil reservoir are draining out very fast and it is predicted that the remaining fossil fuels can only meet the worlds energy demand just three decades more (IEA, 2002a). Moreover, the environmental damage that is created by fossil fuels is in like manner another crucial danger in the proximo. Along with environmental problems, climate change besides created economic and social losses. If the current pace continues, the weather and climate losses will reach almost $ 150 accountingion by next decade (IEA, 2002a). Because of these reasons, Renewable energy has gained importune in the energy policy agendaTwo important global environment initiatives have too stimulated greater interest in renewable in the world. The first was the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992. Renewables featured in both Agenda 21 and the Climate Change Convention (United Nations, 1992). Because of the important role of fossil fuels in the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmospheric state (it is estimated that the energy domain accounts for about half the global emissions of green-house gases) and concomitant climate change concerns, renewable are perceived to constitute an important option for mitigating and abating the emissions of greenhouse gases (Socolow, 1992).Renewable also featured high on the agenda of the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002. One of the targets proposed at WSSD was for every country to kick in itself to meeting 10% of its national energy supply from renewable. Although the 10% target was not agreed to at the summit, there was general consensus that cou ntries should commit themselves to promotion of renewable (WEHAB Working Group, 2002).The main advantage of renewable sources is that they are plunge in every part of the world depending on geographical and geological situations. In other words, they are indigenous energy sources. The countries does not need to import them, which means they can relieve the dependency problem on one hand and can save precious foreign exchange reserves on the other. Renewable energy has also economic and social benefits such as jobs creation. In 2002, more than 14 one thousand millions jobs have created world wide in RE activities (IEA, 2002a). According to U.S. Department of energy, only in 2002, 25,000 new jobs were created in photovoltaic (PV) industry (Aitken, 2004).RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES IN PAKISTANPakistan has wide spectrum of high potential of renewable energy sources, conventional and non-conventional as well, which have not been adequately explored, exploited or developed. As a result, the primary energy supplies today are not enough to meet even the present demand. Moreover, a very large part of the uncouth areas does not have the electrification facilities because they are either too outside(a) and/or too expensive to connect to the national grid. So, Pakistan, like other developing countries of the region, is facing a serious challenge of energy deficit. Only 55% and 20% of Pakistans population has access to electricity and natural gas respectively. Moreover, about 80% countrys population lives in rural areas and most of them have no access of to electricity. In Pakistan, per capita primary energy supply is only 0.33 million tons oil combining weight (MTOE) while per capita electricity supply is about 520 kWh compared to Worlds average 2,500 kWh At present people are facing severe alloy shedding (about 10 hours a day) due to shortage of 3 GW power supply. Pakistan has very low indigenous fossil fuel resource base and with present rate of production, the ind igenous recoverable reserves of oil and gas will exhausted in 14 and 21 respectively. Though there is enormous coal reservoir (185 billion tons) in the country but has not utilized so far due to variety of reasons. The prospect of nuclear energy is bright in Pakistan but high cost, technology barriers and international embargoes are the big hurdles in its course. This shows that conventional non renewable resources are grossly inadequate for meeting the future energy ask of the country. Therefore, development of the renewable energy sources can play an important role in meeting this challenge (Harijan et al., 2008).Pakistan stretches from 24N to 37N latitudes and from 61E to 76E longitudes. The total land area of Pakistan is about 800,000 km. The landscape varies from lofty Karakoram and Himalaya mountains, with the K-2 peak (second highest in the world 8,613 meters) to the famous surrender of Thar and includes fertile plains of the river Indus and its tributaries. The offshore co vers over 231,674 km in the Arabian Sea. In Pakistan, cropped and forest lands cover an area of about 23 million hectares and 4 million hectares respectively (AEDB website www.aedb.org)There are quite a number of renewable energy sources, but the resources that are technologically viable and have bright prospects to be exploited commercially in Pakistan include, solar (PV, thermal), Water (mega local macro-micro-hydel) Wind. abandons (City solid waste, animal waste) geothermal. Pakistan can get benefit and use these as substitute energy in areas where sources exist.Water Energy PotentialHydropower is one of the oldest forms of energy mankind has used on a mass scale. Mechanical use of hydropower began thousands of years agone by the Egyptians and Greeks for irrigation and milling of grain. Its use for production of electricity dates back to the 19th century in 1882 electricity was produced for the first time by the use of hydropower (Asif, 2008). It is the most versatile source o f energy being used in the world. It is renewable, abundant, environmentally friendly and technically mature. It is also regarded as the most economical form of energy. Hydropower is regarded as one of the most important sources of energy Pakistan can count on. Despite the presence of a strong base forTable-1 Proposed sites and their discharge, fall and power potentialSName of ChannelLocationDischarge in fee/secondFall in FeetPower Potential in MW1Baloki-Sulamanki Link-1RD1062501250010.6410.002Baloki-Sulamanki Link-2RD33430900017.8610.723Chanab-Jhelum Link (Tail)RD3166221352741.7040.004Upper ChanabRD0165008.839.705TP Link Canal (DG Khan)RD183000120003.0012.28(Source Hassan, 2002)this form of energy, not enough has been done to tap the precious resource. The hydro potential was estimated at about 50,000 MW out of which about 4,800 MW has been developed over the past 50 years through mega-hydel plants and the remaining has yet to be exploited (Kazi, 1999). The northern areas of the co untry are rich with hydropower resources. Hydrological survey also revealed that there is a great potential for 300 MW power generations through construction of micro hydropower plants in northern areas of Pakistan (Hassan, 2002). Besides, there is an immense potential for exploiting water falls in the canal network particularly in Punjab, where low head high discharge exists on galore(postnominal) canals. Irrigation system of Pakistan is one the largest in the world having extensive network of canal of 160,000 km length. The canal system has a huge hydropower potential at numerous sites/locations on these irrigation canals, ranging from 1MW to more than 10MW, which can be utilized for developing small hydro-power stations (Hussan, 2002)Wind EnergyHarnessing wind power to produce electricity on a commercial scale has become the fastest growing energy technology. Economic, political and technological forces are now emerging to make wind power a viable source of energy. Data shows t hat worldwide installed wind power capacity during the period 1996-2008. The total wind power capacity was only 6,100 MW which has increased tremendously and reached to 120791 MW in 2008. Pakistan has a considerable potential of wind energy in the coastal belt of Sindh, Baluchistan and as well as in the lay waste to areas of Punjab and Sindh. This renewable source of energy has however, not so far been utilized significantly. The coastal belt of Pakistan is blessed with a God gifted wind corridor that is 60 km wide (Gharo Kati Bandar) and 180 km long .This corridor has the exploitable potential of 50,000 MW of electricity generation through wind energy (AEDB website www.aedb.org)Fig.1. Worldwide installed wind power capacity 1996-2008 (Source http//www.ewea.org/)Fig. 2. Pakistan Meteorological Departments wind mapping stations Source www.aedb.orgPakistan is a late starter in this field. It is estimated that more than 5000 villages can be electrified through wind energy in Sindh, B alochistan and Northern areas Country first ever commercial 50 MW wind farm has been inaugurated in April 2009 with cooperation of Zorlu Enerji Group of Turkey at Jhimpir, District Thatta, Sindh. Moreover, Projects for generation of 1200MW of electricity from wind are in different stages of development (AEDB website www.aedb.org)Solar EnergyDirect solar energy can broadly be categorise into solar photovoltaic (PV) technologies, which convert the suns energy into electrical energy and solar thermal technologies, which use the suns energy directly for heating, cooking and drying (Karekezi and Ranja, 1997). Solar energy has for a long time been used for drying animal skins and clothes, preserving meat, drying crops and evaporating seawater to extract salt. Substantial research has been done over the years on exploiting the huge solar energy resource. Today, solar energy is utilized at various levels. On a small scale, it is used at the household level for lighting, cooking, water heat ers and solar architecture houses medium scale appliances include water heating in hotels and irrigation. At the community level, solar energy is used for vaccine refrigeration, water pumping, purification and rural electrification. On the industrial scale, solar energy is used for pre-heating boiler water for industrial use and power generation, detoxification, municipal water heating, telecommunications, and, more recently, transportation (solar cars) (Karekezi and Ranja, 1997 Ecosystems, 2002).Solar energy has excellent potential in areas of Pakistan that receive high levels of solar radiation throughout the year. Every day, country receives an average of about 19 Mega Joules per satisfying meter of solar energy (AEDB website www.aedb.org).During last twenty years Pakistan has shown quite encouraging developments in photovoltaic (PV). Currently, solar technology is being used in Pakistan for rural telephone exchanges, repeater stations, highway emergency telephones, cathodic pr otection, refrigeration for vaccine and medicines in the hospitals etc. The Public Health Department has installed many solar water pumps for drinking purposes in different parts of the country. Both the private and public sectors are playing their roles in the Popularization and up grading of photovoltaic activities in the country. A number of companies are not only involved in trading photovoltaic products and appliances but also manufacturing different components of PV systems. They are merchandising PV modules, batteries, regulators, invertors, as well asSource www.aedb.orgFig. 3. Annual average mean daily Solar Radiation in Pakistan KWH/sq.mpractical low power gadgets for load shedding such as photovoltaic lamps, battery chargers, garden lights System (SHS) project in 2005 and basic facilities of lighting, cooking and water disinfection were provided to 11 villages in remote areas of Pakistan. Based on success of this program, the government had approved replication of this pro ject in 400 villages in Baluchistan Sindh (Source www.aedb.orgEnergy from WasteFor more than twenty years, Waste to Energy has been recognized as a clean, reliable, renewable source of energy. In America today 2,500 MW are solely generated by the waste-to-energy plants. Many other countries including Sweden and japan have applied this technology since the last 20 years. In the subcontinent, India installed three projects to produce electricity from waste with a total capacity of 17.6 MW ( Shahid 2009)It is estimated that the urban areas of Pakistan generate over 55,000 tones of solid wastes daily ( Ziagham Nayyer, 2005) Unfortunately in Pakistan this source of energy has not been utilized for power generation in the past. The growing urbanization and changes in the pattern of life has given rise to generation of increasing quantities of wastes and its now becoming another threat to our environment.Energy generation from the Animal WastePakistan is an rural country. About 70% of t he population resides in rural areas who meet 95% of their domestic fuel needs by burning bio-fuelsBiogas is a potential renewable energy source in Pakistan. An estimate indicates that Pakistan has potential of generating 8.58 - 1010 cubic meter of biogas 1287 million tones of cattle dung annually produced. The heat value of this gas amounts to 1.8-112 MJ. In addition, 350 millions tons of manure would also produce with biogas (Illyas, 2006). More than 0.024 millions domestic biogas plans have been installed in Pakistan. These plants are of small size (1-10 m ) capacity and mainly used for cooking and other domestic applications.AEDB has facilitated the Landhi Cattle Colony Biogas project, which upon its completion will be one of the largest wastes to energy projects in the world, generating up to 50 MW of electricity. The pilot material body of 250 kW has been successfully initiated. This project is being implemented by Empower Company of New Zealand and will utilize waste of 400, 000 cattle in the area to produce electricity (Source www.aedb.org)GeothermalGeothermal energy is the energy derived from the heat of the earths core. It is clean, abundant and reliable. If properly developed, it can offer a renewable and sustainable energy source. At an international level, approximately 8,100 MW of geothermal power is generated, out of a global potential of 60,000MW (Marietta, 2002 Bronicki, 2001). Most of the high enthalpy geothermal resources of the world are within seismic belts associated with zones of crustal weakness such as platemargins and centers or volcanic activity. A global seismic belt passes through Pakistan and the country has a long geological history of geotectonic events Permo-carboniferous volcanism (Panjal traps in Kashmir) as a result of rifting of Iran-Afghanistan micropiates, Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting of the Indo-Pakistan Plate, widespread volcanism during Late Cretaceous (Deccan traps) attributed to the style of a hot spot in the region, emergence of a chain of volcanic islands along the margins of the Indo-Pakistan Plate, collision of India and Asia (Cretaceous-Paleocene) and the consequent Himalayan upheaval, and Neogene-Quaternary volcanism in the Chagai District (Kazmi Jan, 1999 Raza Bander, 1995). This Geotectonic simulation indicates that Pakistan should not be lacking in commercially exploitable sources of geothermal energy. Potential geothermal energy sites are identified at Sehwan in Sindh and Koh-e-Sultan in Baluchistan nationFig 4. Geothermal Springs of Pakistan Source www.aedb.orgEmergy, Net energy evaluations and environmental loading of Renewable Energy SourcesThere is a great potential of renewable energy sources in Pakistan. However, there are some key questions to be address before exploiting these resources.What will be the net energy and emergy from these energy systems?What will be new environmental load they create?Are these energy systems sustainable or not?Explaining these qu estions is beyond the scope of this paper but I will present a general view of above mentioned concepts.Net Energy AnalysisNet energy refers to the ratio of the amount of energy produced to the amount of energy expended to produce it Net energy determines the usefulness of energy system to society. The usefulness of an energy system is determined by a complex combination of physical, technical, economic and social attributes. This includes energy density, power density, emissions, cost and efficiency of conversion, financial risk amenability to storage, risk to human health, and ease of transport. These attributes combine to determine energy quality. Energy returns for investment (EROI) is an important tool uses for net energy analysis. EROI is used to compare the amount of energy delivered to society by a technology to the total energy required to find, extract, process, deliver, and otherwise upgrade that energy to a socially useful form. Hydropower has the highest EROI among the renewable energy resources. Wind energy system has very favorable EROI in the right condition while solar thermal have low EROI compared to hydropower. They key issue is the size of the surplus that can realistically be delivered by renewable energy system (Cleveland, C.J. 2008)Source (Odum, H.T. 1998)Fig. 4 Energy transformation, storage, and feedback reinforcement found in units self organized for maximum performanceEmergy SynthesisEmergy refers to visible(prenominal) energy of one kind previously required directly and indirectly to make a product or service (Odum, H.T. 1998). Emergy synthesis serves as an alternative method to evaluate the energy flows of a system. It provides a way to account for differences in energy quality, for environmental services provided to a system, as well as a means to measure a systems level of Emergy sustainability. To derive the solar emergy of a resource or commodity, it is necessary to trace back through all the resource and energy flows that ar e used to produce it and express these input flows in the amount of solar energy that went into their production. This has been done for a wide variety of resources and commodities as well as for the renewable energies driving the biogeochemical process of the earth (Brown, M.T. and Ulgiate, S. 2002)Emergy and energy story require systems diagrams to organize evaluations and account for all inputs to, and outflows from, processes. The structures and storages that operate our world of humanity and environment are sustained against the depreciation of the second law by productive inputs for replacement and maintenance. Maximizing the products and services for growth and support appears to be a design principle of self organization as given by Alfred Lotka as the maximum power principle. Pathways in Figure 4 dilate the flows and conservation of energy. The storage is represented with a tank symbol. The heat sink symbol represents the dispersal of available energy from processes and s torages according to the second law. The feedback from right to go forth interacts as a multiplier increasing energy intake. This autocatalytic loop is one of the designs that prevail because they reinforce power intake and efficient use (Odum, H.T. 1998)Source (Brown, M.T. and Ulgiate, S. 2002)Fig 5 Aggregated energy systems diagram of an electric power plant, with main inputs and outputs shown and used to calculate performanceemergy based indicators. Legends R1=renewable inputs directly fall on the plant site (sun, wind, rain) R2=renewable inputs supplied by the local ecosystem and used by the plant in the production of electricity (cooling water and air, oxygen for combustion) R=locally renewable input to the process=max(R1 R2) as these inputs are driven by the same (solar) source N=nonrenewable inputs (such as coal, oil, nd natural gas or groundwater that is used faster than it is recharged) F=goods and services from the economy (F) that are used to construct, operate, and mai ntain the power plant (construction materials, machinery, general supplies, human services, etc.) Y=Output of a process. Here, the electricity yielded by the plant. By definition, the output is assigned an emergy Y=R+N+F =chemicals released by the power plant to the atmosphere (from combustion) H = Heat released by the power plant to the atmosphere and the cooling waterBrown, M.T. and Ulgiate, S. (2002) evaluated six electricity production systems by using energy and emergy accounting system, in order to rank their relative thermodynamics and environmental efficiencies. They explored out/input energy ratio, emergy yield ratio (EYR) and environmental load ratio (ELR). Generation of carbon dioxidehas also been accounted for in order to compare renewable and nonrenewable energy sourcesEmergy yield ratio, EYR=Y/F=(F+R+N)/FEnvironmental loading ratio, ELR= (F+N)/REmergy index of sustainability, IS = EYR/ELRThe emergy yield ratio (EYR) provides insight into the net benefit of the various production processes to society. In fact, the higher the fraction of locally available energy sources (R+N) that are exploited by means of the investmentFfrom outside, the higher the value of this indicator. Environmental loading ratio expresses the use of environmental service by the system. Environmental service is measured as the emergy of that portionRof the environment that is used. When EYR is high due to a high value of local renewable resources, then ELR is small, olibanum indicating a small environmental stress. On the contrary, when a high value of local nonrenewable sources contributes to EYR, then ELR increases, thus suggesting a larger environmental stress. Therefore, a simultaneous increase of both EYR and ELR, indicates that a larger stress is being placed on the environment on the contrary, when EYR increases and ELR decreases, the process is less of a load on the surrounding environment.Brown, M.T. and Ulgiate, S. (2002) concluded that wind generation and hydroele ctric power plants have the highest EYR, while the oil fired power plant was the lowest. They also found that electricity generated using wind, geothermal, and hydro power plants had the lowest environmental impact, while fossil fired plants the highest. Further more they also found that the wind and hydroelectric plants had the highest-over-all add up (economic and ecological) sustainability, followed by geothermal electricity.CONCLUSIONPakistan is facing severe energy crises. It is projected that energy demand-indigenous supply gap is increases from 27% in 2005 to 57% in 2030. It is intend that demand indigenous supply gape would be bridge by imported oil and gas. Consequently, import of energy would increase the energy import bill as well as energy security issues. The consumption of fuel will also degrade the environment. Renewable resources in the form of hydropower, wind. Solar PV, Biogas, geothermal etc. are suitable renewable technologies for Pakistan There is substantial potential of these Renewable Energy resources and should be developed for managing the current energy crises and meeting the future energy demand for Pakistan. However there is need of a thorough analysis of net energy and emergy gains from using renewable energy sources. There is also need of investigating the new environmental these alternative sources will create. They key issue is the size of the surplus that can realistically be delivered by renewable energy system